The February post on this blog discussed when to use that and when to use which.
That can be troublesome in another way, too: by its absence.
Many writers have developed the habit of leaving out the word that. Omitting that can cause confusion. If a reader must go back and reread a sentence because an omitted that made the sentence unclear, communication is ineffective.
I recently read a sentence that began, “We anticipate the report . . .”
How did your brain process that phrase? My brain thought the next words would probably tell me when we anticipate the report. I was ready for something like, “We anticipate the report by Friday.” The phrasing had set my expectations.
But in fact, the second half of the sentence was, “will contain your recommendations.” Wait, what? I stumbled, then read it again:
We anticipate the report will contain your recommendations.
Readers should not have to read a sentence once, pause to recover from mental whiplash, and read the sentence a second time. Readers should not have to work so hard.
The writer created a miscue by omitting that:
(Improved) We anticipate that the report will contain your recommendations.
With that included, the reader can easily understand the sentence and move on.
Hatfield County claimed the property was worth $1 million.
Did you start out thinking that Hatfield County claimed the property? The omission of that can cause confusion for a moment.
Here’s one more example:
She demonstrated the system
Where would a that help the reader?
The Associated Press Stylebook says, “When in doubt, include that. Omission can hurt. Inclusion never does.”